Monday, May 18, 2020
Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 633 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/02/20 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: To Kill a Mockingbird Essay Did you like this example? The New York Times states, that Ã¢â¬Å"Scores of motherless children are overlooked in America every day.Ã¢â¬ In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, written by Harper Lee, the two children, Scout and Jem Finch, have been motherless since Scout was 2, and Jem was 6. Although they do not have a mother, they have three mother figures. One is Calpurnia, their maid, another is Miss Maudie their neighbor, and the third is their Aunt Alexandra. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Childrens Life in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee" essay for you Create order Even though these children are not raised by their biological mother, these three caring women provide them with a nurturing environment, so that the Finch children are not overlooked. Calpurnia is the Finch familyÃ¢â¬â¢s African American housekeeper. She acts as a mother figure to Scout and Jem, and raises them after their motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. She helps teach the children the lessons that Atticus, their father tries to teach them. On the first day of School, Scout brings Walter Cunningham home for lunch. Walter pours maple syrup on his food, and Scout embarrasses him for that. Calpurnia reprimands Scout and tells her that guests should be treated properly. This corresponds with the lesson Scout and Jem learn about treating everyone with respect. Calpurnia has a warm side as well. The same day she scolded her, Calpurnia made Scout her favorite food. She is the first black woman that the children communicated with, and that influences their ideas on race and equality. The combination of discipline and affection makes Calpurnia the ultimate female role model for the Finch children. Miss Maudie Atkinson is another important mother figure to the Finch children. She reinforces AtticusÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs, and agrees with him that Ã¢â¬Å"Mockingbirds donÃ¢â¬â¢t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t eat up peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s gardens, donÃ¢â¬â¢t nest in corncribs, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t do one thing but sing their hearts out for us. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why it is a sin to kill a mockingbird.Ã¢â¬ Scout confides in Miss Maudie when she is feeling left out from the boys, and Miss Maudie never criticizes her for being a tomboy. Scout does not have a mother, but she is blessed to have Miss Maudie in her life to act as a guide and a friend. Alexandra Finch Hancock is Scout and JemÃ¢â¬â¢s aunt. She is quite different from Atticus her brother. Alexandra became part of MaycombÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"high societyÃ¢â¬ , and judges everyone and categorizes them. Despite her preconceived notions, Aunt Alexandra loves her family. Even though she does not agree that Atticus should be the defending attorney for Tom Robinson (a black man),she is very disturbed by the insults he recieves by the townspeople of Maycomb. This proves even though Alexandra does not see eye to eye with her brother, she loves her family nonetheless. Aunt Alexandra doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe Scout should continue in her Ã¢â¬Å"tom-boyish waysÃ¢â¬ . Aunt Alexandra doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand that to change a childÃ¢â¬â¢s manner, you must bring them up with love instead of toughness. Because of the way Alexandra treats Scout, they do not develop a strong bond. Therefore they are not close, and it is difficult for them to live with each other. Although Aunt Alexan dra has a different belief system, the children understand that she loves them and has their best interests at heart. It is unfortunate that Scout and Jem Finch were not brought up by their mother, but they are blessed to have three strong mother figures in their life. Each women contributed to the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and development in their own unique way. The Finch children were definitely not overlooked. There is a saying that says Ã¢â¬Å"it takes a village to raise a childÃ¢â¬ , Scout and Jem needed a few people to help raise them to fill the role of their mother.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Ã¢â¬ËStill a way to go for women to achieve equalityÃ¢â¬â¢ Summary Women have had significant changes in their lives from the past to present in terms of employment as they are more and more being moved away from the household, being able to work like regular men today. Proportion of women in the total workforce is increasing and consequently they compete successfully for higher income jobs such as chief executives. They even have been moving into jobs that in the past were only allocated to men. While these signs are encouraging, women are still paid less than men with a fewer rights and low protection in the workforce. The progression of gender equality still appears uneven, although many women have seized opportunities and are slowly evening up the workforce and deserving the equality they have struggled for ever since the beginning of the twentieth century. Women in executive positions, even in major corporations are exposed to the daily sexist and diminishing behavior from men, leaving women powerless and vulnerable in their attempts to earn th eir place in the future society. Even though many women in their adolescent years excel in their educational training, their achievements and general attainments are not rewarded properly as the levels of salary are not exactly the same as for men once the workforce is reached. By a sheer determination and eagerness to learn and improve, women are earning their place in the society pushing the boundaries and reinforcing their rights to beShow MoreRelatedThe Struggles Of Women s Equality803 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHistorically, women had to fight for their rights to vote and the right to gain economic or personal independence like men. Women have been subjected to unequal treatment and discrimination regardless of their race, culture or socioeconomic status. From birth boys and girls, male and female are expected by society to play certain roles based on gender, religions and other beliefs. Gender stereotypes have enforced the difference between men and women, it labels women as weak, submissive, they shouldRead MoreWomen s Struggle For Equality924 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWomen in American society have endured numerous struggles to fight for equality throughout history. Today American women have come a long way by narrowing gender gaps and becoming successful in aspects of life that are prominently male dominated. Although American women are living a better life than they were years ago, they still deal with inequality when it comes to the workforce, income, politics, domestic duties, and sex. The reason women are not equal to men in these aspects of life are becauseRead MoreAn Insight For Women s Struggle For Equality1298 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAn Insight to WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Struggle for Equality: Ã¢â¬Å"Good Country PeopleÃ¢â¬ In her short film, Ã¢â¬Å"Good Country PeopleÃ¢â¬ , at PBS.org; Global Voices, Tanya Hamilton addresses the gender based bias toward women in the workplace. Hamilton uses the setting of her native born home in St. CatharineÃ¢â¬â¢s Parish, Spanish Town, Jamaica (The Reel Deal) to tell the story of a young woman, Blossom Edwards, forced to take over her uncleÃ¢â¬â¢s taxi business as the sole income for the family. Edwards encounters much adversityRead MoreWomen Struggle Facing Equality : Women s Health, Economics, And Education1165 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn patriarchal societies, women struggle facing equality to men. The gender gap in politics is growing and effecting womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health, economics, and education. It is ridiculous to believe in 2015 the government is still debating whether or not women should have access to birth control. Women and single mothers make up a huge percentage for low income earners. Having to go to work, and provide for their children, if either th e women or children get sick, they have hardly enough money to support havingRead MoreDamned If I Don t : Women s Struggle For Gender Equality1586 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCarrie Westfall Margaretmary Daley WGST 201 April 27, 2015 Damned if I Do, Damned if I DonÃ¢â¬â¢t: WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Struggle for Gender Equality Inequality between men and women has been occurring since the beginning of time. Over the years, activists for feminism have fought to close the gender gap that has put a setback on all aspects of a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s life. From marriage, to work, politics, and even parenting, sexism plays a key role in shaping the lives of those around it. Gender expectations are a cruelRead MoreThe Civil Rights Movement : African Americans And Native Americans1086 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa movement in which minorities fought for equality. Groups that previously had been discriminated against began to defend themselves with greater strength and success. The civil rights movement inspired African Americans, Native Americans, women, queers, and Latinos to fight for equality. Although each social group faced their own unique challenges during the civil rights movement, each group shared a common connection through their struggles for equality. Mutual support between African AmericansRead MoreWomen s Struggle For Equal Rights860 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespre-Revolutionary France and America, Women had no political rights and were forced to rely on men. The women were destined to live a life of a house wife, she was only seen competent enough in society to raise and educate kids and take care of her household. In both countries, the revolution increased the populationÃ¢â¬â¢s attention to political matters and made liberty and equality very important to the people. Unfortunately, Women did not claim any rights during this time, but the women of the French RevolutionRead MoreFeminism is simply a sociological theory, which states that men and women are equal. Feminism is900 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestheory, which states that men and women are equal. Feminism is mainly concerned with giving rights to women by highlighting the numerous ways in which women have rendered to society. Feminist theorists believe in the social, political, and economic equality of genders and believe that each has his own rights as well as duties. They strive to give the oppressed women their full rights that are being taken every day. History of Feminism Feminism first started in the 1830Ã¢â¬â¢s as a basic sociological theoryRead MoreWomen s Education : An International Human Right Without Any Discrimination Based On Sex895 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWomen`s education is an international human right without any discrimination based on sex or gender. It is necessary for identity social development and a means for a prosperous life. Constantly, the United Nations emphasized women`s education and set goals for its success with gender equality. Empowering women`s education is an essential element in growing societies that seek democracy and economic advancement. For the last decade, Palestinian women education had been the concern for several reasonsRead MoreFeminism : Women And Women908 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFeminism Throughout history women have struggled to show their value juxtaposed to men. Women are often downgraded economically, politically and socially just because they are femaleÃ¢â¬â¢s. The struggle between women in the 1800s is similar to the struggle women have now. Equal rights for women are still being campaigned now as much as it was during the 1800s. The connotation of feminism has been created to be a negative word .Just like people believe women should be equal to men, many others
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Defining Magwitch in Great Expectations Great Expectations was written in the era of Queen Victoria; ironically a time of great progress and prosperity. Sadly, this was not the case for all. Education benefited the rich. As a result, there was a huge gap between the rich and the poor. The justice system was harsh, favouring the rich, two hundred men and women were put before the judge to be sentenced to death every week. It is clear that Dickens reflects on the society of the time, and shows the unjust, class divided society Magwitch was a part of and the need to reform a legal system which treated this man so unjustly. Knowing Magwitch grew up in this brutal society, it isnt surprising thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There is a sense of gratitude on his part which the reader has to respect. We see this kindness again when Pip goes to the pub with Joe, Mr. Wopsle and a stranger one night. During the course of the evening, the stranger brings a file out of his pocket to stir his drink. The file he uses is identical to the one Pip gave to Magwitch that night on the marshes. Later the stranger gave Pip a shilling rapped in two pound notes. This generosity soon becomes obvious to the reader and that the money is from Magwitch. It is these moments of compassion which alter the readers view of the violent bully and create a sense of respect for him. Magwitch describes his life as in jail and out of jail and in his own words he tells us that he is a criminal, but that he is not ashamed. It is not surprising considering that he was abandoned from an early age and so he was ill brought up and a thieving turnip was the only way for him to stay alive. Jail was his second home and he soon became a juvenile offender in trouble with the police all the time and eventually got the reputation of being hardened. You can hardly be envious of Magwitch life and you begin to pity him. Magwitch is prepared to stare death in the face to get what he wants and he isnt afraid of death because he has hadShow MoreRelatedVictorian Era Research Paper1048 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCentury Criminal Profiling in Great Expectations In the nineteenth century, the harsh consequences for committing crimes depended on various factors, including social status, appearance, behavior and gender. The law was biased towards those who were both superior in appearance and thoroughly educated. Women were seen as respectable but naÃ ¯ve rather than murderers. Through his distinction of characters, Dickens shows his interest of profiling in his novel Great Expectations. MagwitchÃ¢â¬â¢s story of hisRead MoreGreat Expectations By Charles Dicken1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPublished in 1861, Great Expectations is considered to be one of Charles DickenÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest works both overall and within the bildungsroman genre. This novel addresses many of the common concerns in bildungsromane, such as finding a place to belong, discovering who one can depend on, defining what really matters in life, and coming to peace with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self (Burton, 2013). While Great Expectations has many important characters participating in the story, Pip is, without a doubt, the main characterRead MoreDickens Creation of Sympathy for His Characters in Great Expectations2048 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesDickens Creation of Sympathy for His Characters in Great Expectations Charles Dickens was born on February 7th 1812, the son of John and Elizabeth Dickens. John Dickens was a clerk in the naval pay office. He had a poor head for finances and in 1824 found himself imprisoned for debt. His wife and children (with the exception of Charles) were, as was normal, imprisoned with him. Charles was put to work at Warrens Blacking Factory, where conditions were terrible. When his Read MoreGreat Expectations: Females Influence on Pip Essay2892 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesGreat Expectations: Females Influence on Pip In the opening of the novel, Pip is a naÃ ¯ve young boy who as been brought up in a traditional Victorian manner. He is a very innocent and kind-hearted boy who when asked brings the convict the file and food, here we also see that Pip is quite a gullible child as when threatened by the convict Abel Magwitch who says that heÃ¢â¬â¢ll get a fellow convict to Ã¢â¬Ëtear his heart and liver out while he sleepsÃ¢â¬â¢ unless he does as the convict
In many literary works there is a general idea that appearances may be deceiving and that not everything is the what it seems to be. Most writers use this idea to help create conflict within this story; among these writers is William Shakespeare. In one of his more popular plays, Othello, Shakespeare gave the character Iago a two sided personality. Iago pretends to be a friend of Othello by giving him helpful tips and advice; however, he is secretly trying to sabotage OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage. He tricks Othello into thinking the worst about Cassio and that he is having an affair with OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s wife Desdemona. Throughout the tragic play of Othello, Shakespeare uses an ongoing theme of appearance versus reality to show how Iago manipulates eachÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As a token of his love, and the first gift Othello ever gave Desdemona, the handkerchief means a lot to Othello. It also symbolizes her loyalty to him; as long as Desdemona has the handkerchief he knows that she is pure. Iago knows this fact and tries to use it towards his advantage. When Desdemona drops the handkerchief on the floor her maid Emilia, IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, picks it up and brings it to Iago. She knew that it had been something Iago had been dying to get his hands on for awhile. Iago plants the handkerchief in CassioÃ¢â¬â¢s bedroom so that it would seem as if he had it from Desdemona. Ã¢â¬Å"I will in CassioÃ¢â¬â¢s lodging lose this napkin / And let him find it. Trifles light as air / Are to the jealous confirmations strong / As proofs of holy writ.Ã¢â¬ (Othello 3.3.322-325) Then Iago tells Othello that he had seen Cassio wiping his beard with it DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s handkerchief when Othello asks for proof of disloyalty. To Othello this shows that everything Iago had been telling him was right. Desdemona gave away the one thing that meant the most in their relationship and proved her infidelity. However, Othello does not know that Iago had planted the handkerchief wit h Cassio. He only knows half of the story, not everything is what it seems. Othello seems to get tricked into believing everything that Iago tells him. A major reason that Othello believes his wife is cheating on him is
Question: Discuss about the Emotion Regulation and Performance Pressure. Answer: Introduction: As the new General Operations Manager of the company, it is my responsibility to ensure employee well-being by lifting employee morale. Since the Store Manager has unnecessarily yelled at the managers, whose motivation level might have been affected, I would call the Store Manager to interact with me personally. I would request him to control his emotions of stress and anxiety at workplace, and would ask him to contact the Marketing and Distribution team for organizing a meeting to formulate strategies to boost the store sales growth. Also, I would make him understand that each business has its ups and down, but as a leader, the Store Managers duty is to retain and develop an optimistic outlook amongst its employees, and keep up their morale, instead of sounding too bossy to them. Further, in order to model positive leadership behaviour at workplace, I would arrange in-house training as well as external workshop training sessions for the leaders of the organization so that they can learn to lea, control and motivate at the same time. I would hold a meeting with the Team Leads and Managers proposing the implementation of the Transformational Leadership style at workplace, so that the employees efforts do not get unrecognized and unrewarded during the peak hours (Laschinger et al. 2014). In order to build an employee-leader rapport, the organization will introduce its performance recognition policy, where the Departmental Managers will be asked to recognize the best talent in their department, and reward the employees with their own hands, instead of the General Managers doing the same. The Store Manager failed to exhibit two important elements of Emotional Intelligence while dealing with the employees. First of all, he lacks self-regulation, as he was unable to control his emotions of frustration and anxiety while dealing with his employees. Secondly, he also lacks the motivation element, as he fails to cheer up his employees, and inspire them to accomplish sales growth, despite the odds. Manner in which the Store Manager Should Have Communicated: The Store Manager should have called all the Departmental Managers for an interactive session, where he should have communicated the crucial issue affecting the company and ask them to offer innovative strategies to improve the same. He should have called in the Marketing and Distribution team as well, asking for their opinions, while announcing reward and recognition for the 2 best performing departments in the store, who would have over-achieved the sales target and provided the best quality service to the consumers. This would have created an urge amongst the employees to work more productively, without suffering from a fear of job loss. The Store Manager, as the management body, represents the vision and outlook of the company, and his behaviour should essentially reflect the organizational culture the company believes in. His aggressive approach towards the managers deflated employee morale, who might interpret his behaviour as a reflection of the organizations attitude towards them (Goleman et al. 2013). This would have easily led to the problem of low employee motivation and engagement, ultimately resulting in low productivity, higher staff absenteeism and turnover rates. The Managers would have held grudge against the management, and their disengagement would inevitably lead to low store performance. 2 Possible Misinterpretations Arising in a Diverse Workplace: First of all, it may happen that an Asian worker is working in collaboration with an Australian employee on a specific project. Owing to the highly individualized culture of the latter, the Australian would tend to be highly professional, avoiding invasion of personal space, while the Asian coming from collective culture, may find his co-workers behaviour cold, unfriendly and rude. Again, in American organizations, apart from hard work and dedication, an employee must be able to speak loudly about his accomplishments to facilitate his career progression. However, the same man coming in Latin America, speaking of his achievements may be interpreted as rude and proud, as hard work with a humble behaviour is the key to success, as believed by the Latinos. I would appreciate the effort of the employee for communicating the issue that has been bothering the team. Next, I would explain the employee some basic issues about the woman, who having come from a different culture, might not be comfortable in engaging certain activities which are apparently normal for the other co-workers. I would research a bit about the cultural background, and the basic ideals, norms and beliefs of the people of that culture, to make him identify and appreciate the inherent differences lying in the cultural outlook of the new employee and that of the other employees. In order to avoid cross-cultural differences and ensure effective communication, I would introduce cross-cultural training sessions and workshops at workplace that would help in enhancing the cross-cultural communication and behavioural skills of the employees. Further, I would myself hold an interactive session with the employees, explaining them about various cross-cultural concepts and theories, including the famous Hofstedes theory of Cultural Dimensions (Ishihara and Cohen 2014). Identification of the Employee Feelings: Empathy and social skills are the two important elements of emotional intelligence that I would utilize here to solve the situation. I would call the employee for a one-to-one session, and would ask him why he stays aloof. I would try to empathize with his situation, and understand if he feels too new to interact, or he is shy by nature, or if he had any unfavourable experience at workplace in the past (Baojuan and Qing 2017). I would try to extract as much information as possible from him regarding his personal emotions at workplace, and would first try to understand his own perspective on interacting with his fellow co-workers, before forming any opinion about him. Before forming opinion about an individual, it is important to develop an in-depth understanding of the various factors influencing the behaviour of the individual. Accordingly, i would research about the personality type of the employee to understand the implications of his behavioural patterns. He may possess the Systematic Personality Type, whereby he is more of a deadline-driven, professional personnel, who appreciate strictly formal behaviour at workplace, and refrain from anything that he finds to be irrelevant for his job role. In this case, he needs to be called in and made aware of his professional and career benefits of attending the workplace training sessions (Laborde et al. 2014). Again, he may have a passive communication style for which he fails to assert himself and his needs properly, and prefer to remain aloof, instead of the team-building exercises. In that case, the other co-workers especially the managers should be asked to approach him, and initiate conversation with him, until he feels at ease with them. Application of Awareness of my Feelings to Solve the Problem: I would first try to understand the employees perspectives, in terms of his behavioural patterns or communication style, and accordingly I would try to adjust the same with the needs of the organization. Being aware of the employees social and emotional needs, will help me counsel him and make necessary arrangements to communicate the issue with the team leads or departmental managers so that they can take up strategies to create employee rapport (Shaw et al. 2014). This can be done through frequent ream outing plans, interactive game sessions including not more than four people in each team, that will help the employee develop bonds with the other members, and appreciate the company more than a mere professional sphere (Ct 2017). Since the organization has decided to delay the training sessions, and enhance performance targets, the emotionally effective employees might interpret this move of the company, to be insensitive, and they may experience high level of employee dissatisfaction and disengagement, thinking that the company policies are not at all employee-friendly, and the same will eventually lead to their oppression and exploitation at workplace as well. Now, needless o say that these employees will feel frustrated and depressed with the sudden change in their targets, and will eventually disassociate themselves from any productive work at workplace (Kaplan et al. 2014). While their disengaged behaviour would lead to absenteeism and high employee turnover rates as well, they might also end up frustrating their co-workers, further de-motivating them. Consequently, all these would impede the accomplishment of goals in the company. It is highly important to assess the emotional impact of any decision on the minds of the employees, before taking any decisions, simply because it helps the management authority to evaluate the possible emotional responses of the employees to the situation, and act accordingly (McMann et al. 2017). For example, in the present scenario, the organization has decided that it will enhance performance targets of the employees, which means the employees will have to work for longer hours. In absence of effective communication, explaining the scope, purpose and benefits of the sudden change in the working policy, the employees might feel frustrated, and get disengaged, while resisting change. Decision-making Process Considering Emotional Impact on Employees: A decision-making process that takes into account the emotional impact of the employees, must involve effective engagement of the employees perspectives and opinions in the decision-making process and proper communication amongst the staff members and the managers. Any change such as increase in targets or delay in the training program is always implemented on the employees, and hence even though the management has the last word to say, the employees should feel heard (Hun ad Kaplan 2015). Next, proper communication to the employees about the duration and benefits of the change will help in receiving more sensible and mature employee reactions. In order to help employees manage emotions at workplace, the company will adopt counselling, relation training as well as stress management training at workplace. The employees will be made aware of the nature and source of stress and anxiety at workplace and are to be trained to combat the same. My every channel of communication such as email id and contact number will be given to each employee, so that they can communicate to me, in case they feel emotionally tortured and low, and wish to inform me of grievance. Strict human resource policies will be enforced in the company prohibiting employees from using any form of aggressive means of communication, deemed inappropriate in a workplace scenario. Reference List: Anthony?McMann, P.E., Ellinger, A.D., Astakhova, M. and Halbesleben, J.R., 2017. Exploring different operationalizations of employee engagement and their relationships with workplace stress and burnout.Human Resource Development Quarterly,28(2), pp.163-195. Baojuan, Y. and Qing, Z., 2017. The Effect of Psychological Empowerment on Job Satisfaction of Principals in Rural School: The Mediating Role of Professional Identity and the Moderation Role of Emotion Intelligence.Journal of Psychological Science,3, p.027. Ct, S., 2017. Enhancing managerial effectiveness via four core facets of emotional intelligence: Self-awareness, social perception, emotion understanding, and emotion regulation.Organizational Dynamics. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R.E. and McKee, A., 2013.Primal leadership: Unleashing the power of emotional intelligence. Harvard Business Press. Hu, X. and Kaplan, S., 2015. Is feeling good good enough? Differentiating discrete positive emotions at work.Journal of Organizational Behavior,36(1), pp.39-58. Ishihara, N. and Cohen, A.D., 2014.Teaching and learning pragmatics: Where language and culture meet. Routledge. Kaplan, S., Cortina, J., Ruark, G., LaPort, K. and Nicolaides, V., 2014. The role of organizational leaders in employee emotion management: A theoretical model.The Leadership Quarterly,25(3), pp.563-580. Laborde, S., Lautenbach, F., Allen, M.S., Herbert, C. and Achtzehn, S., 2014. The role of trait emotional intelligence in emotion regulation and performance under pressure.Personality and Individual differences,57, pp.43-47. Laschinger, H.K.S., Wong, C.A., Cummings, G.G. and Grau, A.L., 2014. Resonant leadership and workplace empowerment: The value of positive organizational cultures in reducing workplace incivility.Nursing Economics,32(1), p.5. Shaw, W.S., Besen, E., Pransky, G., Boot, C.R., Nicholas, M.K., McLellan, R.K. and Tveito, T.H., 2014. Manage at work: a randomized, controlled trial of a self-management group intervention to overcome workplace challenges associated with chronic physical health conditions.BMC public health,14(1), p.515.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
The film explores themes of ambition, loneliness, lust for power, false personas, hatred, lack of faith, mistrust and loss of humanity. Anderson explores these themes through the characters of Daniel Plainview and Eli Sunday. In addition to character exploration, Anderson uses a variety of cinematic techniques in order to subtextually portray these themes. These techniques include, contrasting lighting, long shots, wide angles and mis en scene. The first themes to be explored in There Will Be Blood are ambition and loneliness. The film begins with a wide shot of a vast and open terrain. This signifies the emptiness of our setting. We meet the character of Daniel Plainview (Daniel Day Lewis) deep below the ground in a mining shaft. Plainview is working in absolute darkness. This could be symbolic of PlainviewÃ¢â¬â¢s current economic or social position. However, his loneliness and labor is a product of his ambition and lust for power. However, his loneliness and labor is a product of his ambition and lust for power. This ambition is visually revealed to us when Plainview climbs out of his mine and makes his way into town to sell his silver. All of this is done with a broken leg. This ascension out of the darkness of the shaft is visually symbolic of PlainviewÃ¢â¬â¢s path to power. Plainview begins drilling for oil and becomes a more powerful figure. God like imagery is now associated with Plainview in order to visually portray this power. For example, pools of light gather behind DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s head as he looks down into an oil rig. This makes him appear to be holy or God like. Eventually, a worker dies in PlainviewÃ¢â¬â¢s oil rig and Daniel is left covered in blood and oil; this is a reoccurring visual element in the film. Another reoccurring element of the film is the association of oil with death. The worker leaves behind a child named H. W who Daniel adopts. The child wears white garments which are contrasted with the darkness of DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s attire and the blackness of the oil that now consumes the landscape. These white garments could be representative of religious imagery. Daniel and H. W eventually go into business as partners. Daniel attempts to create the impression that he is a family man, thus making purchasing land easier. This introduces the theme of false personas. DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s second false personas is one of a man who is driven by need to help his community. In reality all of his motives are interior. This explains the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s contrasting lighting. Scenes with bright high key light are contrasted with scenes of darkness where PlainviewÃ¢â¬â¢s face is hidden in shaddow. In turn, we begin to see a clear hatred of religion in Daniel. This introduces the theme of lack of faith. DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of faith could be attributed to his developing God complex. This theme is explored further with the introduction of DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s antithesis, Eli Sunday (Paul Dano). Eli is a pastor who immediately attempts to exert power of Daniel by attempting to bless his oil well. Plainview responds by blessing it himself. This is further evidence for DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s God complex which puts the characters in direct conflict. Both men are attempting to exert control over one another. Eli is attempting to bring Daniel into his congregation and Daniel is attempting to exert his power over EliÃ¢â¬â¢s community. We see visual contrast between Daniel and Eli with how both men are framed in shots. Eli is often framed in tight shots with crowds and people around him. This is in contrast with Daniel who is framed in wide, empty shots. DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Eli shines a light on another theme, hatred. When Daniel starts a friendship with his brother Henry, he abandons his false persona and reveals his true self. Plainview admits to a deep seated hatred of humanity and his desire to be alone. The character of Henry is important due to the fact that Plainview places his trust in a person for the first time in the film. This trust is destroyed when itÃ¢â¬â¢s revealed that Henry is a conman. This introduces the theme of mistrust and signifies a character shift in Plainview. Daniel has now his humanity which is represented by his abandonment of H. W. Eventually, Eli attempts to exert power over Daniel by blackmailing him into being baptized. However, we are able to see that Daniel still holds full power through the God imagery association in the scene. A large bright cross is placed over PlainviewÃ¢â¬â¢s head as he is being Baptized. Also, despite being on his knees he is still filmed as the dominant in the frame. The baptism is also used for ironic purposes because a man who lacks any humanity has now allegedly been saved. The film then jumps through time to the mid 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s. Daniel is living alone in an enormous mansion with nothing but a servant as company. This brings the theme of loneliness full circle. Plainview started out the film alone and in search of power. He now has massive amounts of wealth and power but is still alone. We also see a sequence in which Plainview drunkenly walks down a flight of stairs. This is visually symbolic of PlainviewÃ¢â¬â¢s descension. This can also be compared to Plainview being underground in a mineshaft in the start of the film. Despite his long journey and quest for power, Plainview has made no progression. The film climaxes with a final meeting between Daniel and Eli. Eli demonstrates his false persona in this scene when he claims that he and Daniel are old friends. This is just in a desperate attempt to get money. This puts Daniel in the ultimate position of power. He forces Eli to abandon his faith by denouncing God. This acts as an anti baptism with Daniel performing it. In this scene the true animal within Daniel emerges as he maliciously controls all of EliÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. We also see a final emergence of DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s God complex when he proclaims that he is the third revelation (EliÃ¢â¬â¢s Church). This scene also serves as a portrayal of hypocrisy. Eli, who allegedly operates as a moral figure throughout the film now abandons his faith for money. This scene also makes us wonder if Daniel, despite being a murderer, has more redeeming qualities than the hypocritical Eli. In addition Anderson sets EliÃ¢â¬â¢s death in a bowling alley which could be symbolic of lying dead in a gutter which is a traditionally seen as a less than heroic way of dying. P. T Anderson uses a variety of cinematic techniques and visual symbols in order to add to his complex thematic narrative. Daniel Plainview is always shot as the dominant in the frame. This is symbolic of his power in the film. Also, as the film progresses the shots that Daniel are in become wider and emptier. This is representative of his loss of humanity and his isolation. Often times when we see Daniel the frame will be void of any other characters. In addition to this we often see a large empty landscape filled with spread out oil rigs behind Daniel. These oil rigs in a large dessert terrain come to be associated with DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s character. Anderson also uses frames in order to isolate Daniel. He often times shoots him through windows and doorways. This is representative of DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s detachment from others. Another symbolic image that comes to be associated with Daniel is fire. In a scene where an oil rig explodes, Daniel watches the fire with joy. The fire comes to be associated with DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s burning ambition. However, it also comes to represent his hatred as evident by a fire burning when he kills Henry. Fire is also at times associated with H. WÃ¢â¬â¢s hatred as well. After weeks of being ignored by his father, H. W attempts to set the Plainview cabin on fire. Anderson also experiments with character proximity in relation to Daniel and H. W. Early in the film they are filmed very close together in medium shots and closeups. The expanding frame and distance between them becomes symbolic of their relationship. Evidence for this comes in a scene where H. W and Daniel are reunited. The scene is shot from an extra wide angle which takes away any sense of intimacy between the two characters. Another reoccurring visual element in this film is industry. Oil rigs, pipelines, trains and cars are all portrayed as motifs within he film. The filmÃ¢â¬â¢s climax within the Plainview mansion also uses heavy visual symbolism. When Daniel descends the stairs his frame is filled with vertical bars from the banister. This is symbolic of Daniel being a prisoner in his own home. The filmÃ¢â¬â¢s final sequence also visually depicts DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s power as he hovers above a crying Eli. Also, when Eli lays bleeding and dying a gutter separates the two characters in a birds eye shot. This could be a reference to DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s God complex. It also acts as a barrier between the two characters in reference to DanielÃ¢â¬â¢s detachment. There Will Be Blood is one of the most interesting and compelling character studies in recent film history. P. T Anderson portrays the fall of a less than human anti hero that we ultimately feel sympathy for. The filmÃ¢â¬â¢s innovative use of camera techniques, lighting, visual symbolism and mis en scene all combine to create a powerful narrative that highlights the nature of human flaws.
Thursday, April 16, 2020
WorldCom Fiasco Essay WorldCom was a company that was dealing with long distance telephone and internet communication server provider technologies. The company at one time became bankrupt because of the mangers who were appointed made the company to go into liquidation because they undertook fraudulent deals and this lead to the collapse of the company. The new chief Executive Officer Mr. Michael Capellas and Mr. Robert Blakely were appointed so as to conduct an audit about the performance of the company.Ã The task of auditing was difficult because the company had so many employees and so many assets of the company had been overvalued and this amounted to increased fraudulent cases that needed to be reviewed. Recent studies showed that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s fraud was as a result of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s managementÃ¢â¬â¢s employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s mismanagement of the companies operations. http://www.seu.edu/ethics/dialogue/cande/cases/worldcom-update.htmlWorldCom CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s disasters of bankruptcy lead t o the laying off workers. The investors and the mangers pension funds were not given to them since the company did not have enough money to pay all the workers. The status of the lives of retirees was also affected because they did not have enough money to cater for them once they terminated their employment. It was observed that besides the poor management of the WorldCom Company the telecommunication industry was overbuilt and it could not absorb the capacity of technology that had been built into the system for many years. The WorldCom shares which had peaked at $62 three years ago had fallen to 83 cents at the trading of the stock exchange this lead to the halting ofÃ the company Ã operationsÃ The management of the company had also borrowed $30 billion from different companiesÃ and at the time of its collapse it had a huge debt such Ã that it was not able to recover to pay its debts of its customers(Maasen, G.F 1999)..The collapse of the World Com Company had also a positive effect because the managers of most corporations became more responsible since they wanted to maximize profits in their businesses. The government of Congress imposed instructions that all corporations were supposed to follow the rules and regulations of the company and thus the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s management could no longer manipulate the balance sheets of the WorldCom Company. Another change that was to be undertaken was that the higher management levels salaries were reduced so that the company would cut on its expenses on the salaries and wages which were taking up the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s largest budget. The ranks of the high-level management structures were regulated so that the right people would hold these positions so as to enable the proper management of WorldCom Company and this reduce the incidence of fraud. http://www.be.wvu.edu/bl-online/news/badnews.htmThe negative effect that WorldCom Company had was that the students who were leaving school had to compete with th e laid off workers of WorldCom, Xeron and Enron companies and this way a challenge to them as they had to compete for the few jobs opportunities that were there in the market. The president of the Congress state Mr. Bush said that he was ready to ensure that the economy of the country was strengthened through reforming the pension plans, and he ensured that corporate criminals were held accountable for their actions. The reason why he wanted to improve the economy was because the WorldCom company had for a long time contributed to the revenue of the country and its demise lead to the reduction of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue thus the president of Congress imposed the instructions so that more people would be made to be more responsible for their actions and the huge losses that were being experienced would be reduced.The president of the Congress state Mr. Bush noted that the people who had dedicated themselves to building the WorldCom company deserved to paid better because they ha d contributed to the well-being of the economy and this enabled the country to protect jobs for their employees thus they had no a problem of the security of their jobs and also ensured that the retirees benefits were secure thus they would not have a problem in the future. The president of the Congress later signed into law a bill that increased a review of the accounting industry and he imposed tough penalties for the executives that committed corporate frauds.The management of WorldCom later filed a case in court to state that they had over valued their earnings by more than $ 4 billion and thus the customers of WorldCom Company were assured that the company was in a stable condition thus they did not have to worry that their telephones and their computers would be affected in anyway.Ethics is the study of how to determine what is right or wrong of an action, a way of life or a decision by a person. In the normative ethics it deals with the search of principles that guide a perso n on whether making a decision or an action is right or wrong. In the utilitarian theory it is based on the moral standards that are applied on an outcome of an action or a decision that ensures all people in an organization behave in a way that will be beneficial to the community at large. In the deontology theory it ensures that the decisions are made solely or primarily by considering oneÃ¢â¬â¢s duties and rights and one that does not change as a result of circumstances.It was not ethical for the leaders of WorldCom to deceive their customers that the company would be successful in the future while it was massively insolvent. The top accounting firms did a bad job of falsifying the audit reports which made customers of WorldCom company to believe that it was a financially stable company.The WorldCom company fiasco sager had an impact on one individual who was known as Cynthia Cooper. She spearheaded the uncovering of the fraudulent activities of the company; she was later award ed a number of awards such as the Accounting Exemplar Award since she had made a notable contribution to professionalism, ethics in the accounting practice of the company. The chief executive officer that is Mr. Ebbers and Mr. Sullivan had contributed to the success of the business since the time they left the company Cynthia cooper was treated badly for uncovering the fraud in the company and her salary was frozen and her auditing position was taken over by another person because she flew to other places of the world since she was given the opportunity to do so.In the year 2004, the chief executive officer of WorldCom Mr. Ebbers was charged with an offense of committing a securities fraud and he had false fully field cases with the Securities and Exchange Commission in March 2005. He was found guilty of all the charges on July 13 that year he was sentenced to a lifetime imprisonment. Mr. EbberÃ¢â¬â¢s lawyer applied for his conviction so that he could not serve the lifetime impris onment, they falsified the case by giving the judge inappropriate information about Mr. EbberÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge of the WorldCom accounting fraud that took place in the company. His lawyers also claimed that his case had been manipulated because the three high-level WorldCom executives were not given permission to testify on his behalf. In August 2005, the former chief executive officer Mr. Sullivan was sentenced for five years in court due to the fraudulent practices of the WorldCom Company. He pleaded guilty of the offence that he had been charged against with and he was the only person who was to testify against Mr. Ebbers. Currently, Mr. Ebbers has been convicted in a court of law and he remains to pay a bail while he continues to pursue an appeal.The management of companies must ensure that the necessary mechanisms for production and allocation of resources are subjected to ethical constraints which ensure that the outcomes of exchange satisfy the demands of social justice and that the basic needs of the people are met because if people needs are not met then a company may not achieve its objectives of profit maximization. The state needs to regulate the society and the market so that the rights of al people in the society are regulated in the case of WorldCom where the company was liquidated because of the poor management of the resources of the company, the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s intervention to regulate the market was a positive move because the other upcoming companies would not fall into the same problem.The management of company should prepare annual directors reports that include a more detailed operating and financial review of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. This will enable shareholders and other people who are interested in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s affairs to make informed assessments of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s current position and future strategies so as to curb incidence of fraud that were noted in WorldCom company and this resulted to its closure.Ref erenceMaasen, G.F (1999). An international comparison of corporate governance modelsÃ¢â¬ , Amsterdam: Spencer Stuarthttp://www.seu.edu/ethics/dialogue/cande/cases/worldcom-update.htmlhttp://www.be.wvu.edu/bl-online/news/badnews.htmKen, B. (2005) WorldComÃ¢â¬â¢s audacious failure and its toll on an industry. New York TimesHooks, G. (1998) Ã¢â¬Å"Corporate welfare policy and the welfare state. Bank deregulation and the savings and loan bail out, Ã¢â¬Å"social forces Vol 77 ISS.4 pp 1644-1646